Britons living in the EU could keep freedom of movement rights

Britons living in EU countries could be granted freedom of movement rights after the 11-month Brexit transition period ends.

British nationals living in countries – including France, Spain and Germany – could be allowed to move to another EU country if they choose to under plans being considered by the European commission.

They may be subject to certain conditions, including proving that they have lived in the EU for five years, but would be granted the similar movement freedoms to other citizens in the bloc, reports suggest.

Britons living in EU countries could be granted freedom of movement rights after the 11-month Brexit transition period ends under plans being concidered by the European Commission. Pictured: European Commission president Ursula von der Leyen

The EUUK joint specialised committee on citizens rights discussed the proposals, Politico reports. 

Co-chairman of the British in Europe campaign Fiona Godfrey said: ‘We received good news on combining our Withdrawal Agreement status with other EU immigration statuses, which should provide some UK citizens in the EU with some further mobility rights.

‘We now need clarity on how those rights will be evidenced.’

At least one million Britons live in the EU and, under the withdrawal agreement terms, they are only able to live in the country they currently reside in – rather than any EU nation they choose.  

A Foreign Office spokesman told The Daily Telegraph: ‘Citizens’ rights has been an absolute priority and the Withdrawal Agreement protects the rights of UK nationals living in the EU by the end of the transition period on December 31 2020, ensuring that they can continue to live their lives in the EU broadly as they did before.’ 

It comes just days after Germany turned up the heat on Boris Johnson over Brexit trade talks demanding he is more ‘realistic and pragmatic’.

Berlin‘s Europe minister Michael Roth said he was ‘disappointed’ with the UK’s tough stance amid rising fears that the negotiations could fail.

von der Leyen, European Council President Charles Michel and European Parliament president David-Maria Sassoli greet each-other

von der Leyen, European Council President Charles Michel and European Parliament president David-Maria Sassoli greet each-other 

With the clock running down to the end of the transition period in December, the two sides still appear to be deadlocked over calls for Britain to fall into line with EU rules and access to fishing waters.

The government insists it is ready to walk away this Autumn if there is no hope of a breakthrough. Another round of discussions between the EU’s Michel Barnier and British counterpart David Frost is due to take place in Brussels this month.

But the Bank of England has raised questions about how much the outcome matters amid the much bigger impact of coronavirus.

Governor Andrew Bailey said the pandemic ‘dwarfed’ the issue of trade terms, and might already have ‘taken over’ much of the damage from a failure to get a deal. 

Boris Johnson

Michael Roth

Berlin’s Europe minister Michael Roth (right) said he was ‘disappointed’ with the tough stance taken by Boris Johnson (left) amid rising fears that the negotiations could fail

In an interview with Sky News after the Bank predicted the economy will shrink by 9.5 per cent this year, Mr Bailey said: ‘Both Covid and Brexit could potentially negatively affect trade… Covid is the bigger shock now… 

‘Moreover of course Covid has already had an effect on trade. 

‘You then get to the extremely complicated question – which I don’t think we’re in a position to give very much frankly useful guidance on at the moment – which is to say if you think about the less good outcomes on Brexit… how much of that effect on trade has already been taken over by what’s happened with Covid?’

Asked whether that meant the risk from Covid dwarfed that from a failure to strike Brexit trade terms, Mr Bailey said: ‘I think at the moment it does dwarf it.’ 

Ministers have told drugs companies to restart stockpiling medicines amid fears that trade terms will not be settled in time.   

Department of Health officials sent a letter to medical suppliers urging them to ‘replenish’ their drug stock. 

They have even warned companies to be prepared to reroute shipping to avoid the Channel. 

The government has also revealed plans to fine lorry drivers destined for the Channel ports £300 if they drive into Kent after December 31 without necessary export paperwork.

Ministers fear that, in the absence of a trade deal, the EU will impose strict import checks on all goods entering the bloc, potentially causing gridlock. 

Governor Andrew Bailey said the pandemic 'dwarfed' the issue of trade terms, and might already have 'taken over' much of the damage from a failure to get a deal

Governor Andrew Bailey said the pandemic ‘dwarfed’ the issue of trade terms, and might already have ‘taken over’ much of the damage from a failure to get a deal

Another round of discussions between the EU's Michel Barnier and British counterpart David Frost (pictured left and right respectively in London last month) is due to take place in Brussels

Another round of discussions between the EU’s Michel Barnier and British counterpart David Frost (pictured left and right respectively in London last month) is due to take place in Brussels 

In an interview with the AFP news agency, Mr Roth said he was ‘disappointed that London is shifting further and further away from the political declaration agreed between us as a reliable basis for negotiations’.

‘I would like those responsible in London to be more realistic and pragmatic. The Brits are known for the latter,’ he said.  

Brussels has been engaging in sabre-rattling as the discussions near the critical moment.

French minister for Europe Clement Beaune recently swiped that no deal is better than a bad deal, insisting Paris will not be ‘intimidated’.  

He said France would be ‘intransigent’ on fishing, and will not be ‘intimidated’ by Britain in the negotiation ‘game’.  

‘Let’s not kid ourselves, if there is no deal, it will be a difficult issue,’ he added. ‘We’ll have to organise a response for sectors like fisheries. Support our fishermen financially. We’re not there yet.’ 

Rishi Sunak goes into battle for the union as he plays up UK government Covid support for Scotland

Rishi Sunak was sent in to battle for the union today as he made his first visit to Scotland as Chancellor. 

He was the latest minister to head north of the border in recent weeks as Boris Johnson attempts to cut off support for Nicola Sturgeon and independence in the wake of Brexit and coronavirus.

He played up the Treasury’s help for Scotland during the pandemic economic collapse as he visited Glasgow, just weeks after Mr Johnson and other Cabinet ministers headed to the country.

Recent polls have suggested a majority support for independence for Scotland, which overwhelmingly voted against Brexit in 2016.

And elections for the Scottish Parliament next year are set to give a major sign of the strength of feeling.

Mr Sunak today highlighted the amount of money paid out to Scottish firms as well as the furlough scheme for jobs in Scotland so far.

The Treasury said UK Government schemes to support businesses recovering from coronavirus have paid out £2 billion in Scotland. The loan schemes have assisted some 65,000 businesses across Scotland.

But Mr Sunak justified the winding down of the Job Retention Scheme (JRS).

Mr Sunak played up the Treasury’s help for Scotland during the coronavirus economic collapse as he visited Glasgow

Mr Sunak is by far the most popular senior Tory among Scots, a new poll suggested today, with a net positive rating that puts him well ahead of Boris Johnson

Mr Sunak is by far the most popular senior Tory among Scots, a new poll suggested today, with a net positive rating that puts him well ahead of Boris Johnson

Mr Sunak today highlighted the amount of money paid out to Scottish firms as well as the furlough scheme for jobs in Scotland so far

Mr Sunak today highlighted the amount of money paid out to Scottish firms as well as the furlough scheme for jobs in Scotland so far

The scheme that has so far cost £33.8 billion supporting the payrolls of 9.6 million workers during the coronavirus crisis has begun tapering off before ending completely in October.

But opposition parties are calling for the Government to extend it for the hardest-hit sectors and those plunged into local lockdown, warning the end to the scheme is a ‘grave mistake’.

Speaking on BBC Scotland’s Good Morning Scotland radio programme this morning, he said: ‘This has been a very difficult decision, but if you look at it from start to finish, we’ve got a situation where the Government will be helping to pay people’s wages for eight months, from start to finish, which I think is a very long period of time.

‘And I think most reasonable people would agree that’s not something we can carry on indefinitely. In common with most other countries around the world, their versions of these are coming to an end.’

He added there are other schemes in place to help support getting people back to work, such as the job retention bonus.

This gives companies a £1,000 bonus if they bring workers back from furlough and keep them employed until at least January.

Mr Sunak said: ‘That will make a really big difference, especially to the small and medium-sized companies.

‘But it’s also wrong to keep people trapped in a situation to pretend that there is a job to go back to.

‘That won’t always be the case, and in those situations it’s better that we look forward and provide those people with new opportunities, and that’s what our plan for jobs does, here in Scotland in our support for apprenticeships, new training or the hospitality industry.

‘All of that is designed to support new opportunities to provide them with hope at what is unquestionably going to be a very difficult time.’

Mr Sunak is by far the most popular senior Tory among Scots, a new poll suggested today.

Recent polls have suggested a majority support for independence for Scotland, which overwhelmingly voted against Brexit in 2016

Recent polls have suggested a majority support for independence for Scotland, which overwhelmingly voted against Brexit in 2016

And elections for the Scottish Parliament next year are set to give a major sign of the strength of feeling

And elections for the Scottish Parliament next year are set to give a major sign of the strength of feeling

The YouGov survey gave him a net favourability rating of just 7, but that put him miles ahead of Mr Johnson (-51) and Scots-born Cabinet Office Minister Michael Gove (-57), among others.

Mr Johnson himself visited Scotland last month, as did Chief Secretary to the Treasury Steve Barclay and Business Secretary Alok Sharma.    

His trip north of the border was greeted by the SNP’s Westminster leader Ian Blackford warning ‘thousands of people could lose their jobs unnecessarily’.

‘Cutting the furlough scheme prematurely is a grave mistake. By removing this crucial support in the middle of a global pandemic, and withholding the financial powers Scotland needs for a strong recovery, the Tories are increasing the risk of mass redundancies,’ he said.

With more than 6,500 jobs lost or put at risk just this week, Labour leader Sir Keir Starmer has called for a targeted extension to prevent a ‘jobs crisis on a scale not seen for generations’.

The jobs retention scheme, however, is not the only programme aimed at boosting employment amid grim predictions for the economy.

The Chancellor has set out a ‘plan for jobs’ which includes measures to boost apprenticeships, stimulate eating out and a job retention bonus of £1,000 for every furloughed employee retained in January.

Brexiteer, 73, sent Anna Soubry ‘remember Jo Cox’ email

Brexit-supporting pensioner admits sending pro-EU Anna Soubry a death threat email referencing murdered MP Jo Cox – but denies it was threatening

  • Brexiteer Keith Willard, 73,  sent email to then-MP Anna Soubry in August 2019
  • Willard’s email did not reach Soubry but was seen by a team at the Met Police
  • Pensioenr admitted sending message but he denied the email was threatening
  • Willard, of Frinton, Essex, was found guilty of conveying a threatening message

Keith Willard sent the message in August last year to then-MP Anna Soubry – a former Conservative MP for Broxtowe, Notts, who later became leader of independent party Change UK

A Brexiteer pensioner, 73, sent a ‘threatening’ email to a pro-EU party leader telling her to ‘remember Jo’ – in what is thought to have been a reference to murdered MP Jo Cox.

Keith Willard sent the message in August last year to then-MP Anna Soubry – a former Conservative MP for Broxtowe, Notts, who later became leader of independent party Change UK.

In the email, the pensioner, of Frinton, Essex, wrote that the result of the EU referendum should be respected.

He also told Miss Soubry to ‘remember Jo’, adding that she had been ‘shot and stabbed’.

The email is believed to have been a reference to the murder of Labour MP Jo Cox in June 2016.

But while Willard, of Frinton, Essex, accepted he had sent the email, he denied it was ‘threatening’.

The pensioner had been due to stand trial earlier this year at Colchester Magistrates’ Court, after denying a charge of sending an article conveying a threatening message.

It was accepted Willard had sent the email, but he denied it was threatening or that it was meant to cause alarm or distress.

Willard said in the email to Miss Soubry to 'remember Jo', adding that she had been 'shot and stabbed'

The email is believed to have been a reference to the murder of Labour MP Jo Cox in June 2016

Willard said in the email to Miss Soubry (pictured left) to ‘remember Jo’, adding that she had been ‘shot and stabbed’. The email is believed to have been a reference to the murder of Labour MP Jo Cox (pictured right) in June 2016

His trial in January was adjourned due to his poor health.

But following a recent trial at the same court, he was convicted of the offence. 

Willard has now been hit with a £300 fine and ordered to pay the same in costs, as well as a £32 victim surcharge.

Jo Cox's killer Thomas Mair, 57, He was found guilty in November 2016 of murder and sentenced to life in prison

Jo Cox’s killer Thomas Mair, 57, He was found guilty in November 2016 of murder and sentenced to life in prison

It is understood the message had not actually got to Ms Soubry – who was elected to Parliament as a Conservative before defecting to the new party.

In fact, it had been seen by the Metropolitan Police’s Parliamentary liaison and investigation team which was set up in the wake of Mrs Cox’s death.

Ms Soubry lost her seat in the December 2019 General Election and announced her new political group would be suspended.

Mother-of-two, Ms Cox, was shot dead with an antique gun outside a West Yorkshire library in 2016. 

Her killer, Thomas Mair, 57, spent hours looking up information on the Nazis, the Ku Klux Klan and other white supremacist organisations before brutally attacking the MP in her hometown of Batley, West Yorkshire. 

He was found guilty in November 2016 of murder and sentenced to life in prison.

Heavily-pregnant woman and young children are among migrants to land on Kent beach

A heavily-pregnant woman and young children are among migrants to land on Kent beach as smugglers tell them to make dangerous Channel crossing before Brexit ‘closes the door’. 

One group of around 16 refugees including 10 young children landed on Dungeness beach in Kent around 8.30am today, and a further cluster of migrants were pictured being rescued at nearby Dover.

It has been reported that authorities have so far been involved in the rescue of more than 120 migrants in small boats that took the dangerous crossing this morning. 

Sky News reports that at least seven dinghies and a kayak were seen being taken into Dover, and that another two kayaks have been detected in the Channel. 

It comes just a day after 13 migrants – who were Afghan, Iranian, Iraqi, Eritrean and Sri Lankan – were picked up yesterday morning in a similar area of the coast.

The 10 males and three females were taken into Dover to be medically checked and questioned by immigration officials.

It means 3,643 migrants have made the life-risking Channel crossing this year – nearly double the 1,850-odd who arrived in the whole of last year.  Last Thursday, a single-day record of 202 people in 20 boats landed.

A heavily pregnant woman and young children landed at the coast in Kent today

A mother and her young child arrived at Dungeness this morning after travelling on a small boat

A mother and her young child arrived at Dungeness this morning after travelling on a small boat

Another group of migrants arrived on a vessel and were picked up by Border Force patrols at Dover, Kent

Another group of migrants arrived on a vessel and were picked up by Border Force patrols at Dover, Kent

It has been reported that authorities have so far been involved in the rescue of more than 100 migrants in small boats that took the dangerous crossing this morning. Pictured: A heavily pregnant refugee arrived on the Kent coast today

It has been reported that authorities have so far been involved in the rescue of more than 100 migrants in small boats that took the dangerous crossing this morning. Pictured: A heavily pregnant refugee arrived on the Kent coast today

This follows the general secretary of the Immigration Service Union, Lucy Moreton, saying earlier this year that people smugglers and traffickers are using Brexit as a ‘driver’ to encourage people to make the crossing.

She told BBC Radio 4’s Today Programme in January: ‘One of the drivers, we’re being told, is that people smugglers and traffickers are telling these folk that after Brexit Britain will close in some way.

‘In practice, of course, this is illegal anyway, and it will be as illegal on 31 January as it is on 1 February. Brexit doesn’t make a difference, but we do know that the criminals are using this to try to drive more business.’

Today’s images show 16 migrants arriving on one small boat, with further vessels thought to have been detected off the Kent coast.  

One of the kids, a boy aged around four, looked exhausted as he laid back on the pebbles with his arms spread out.

A group of around 16 migrants including 10 kids and an eight-month pregnant woman landed on Dungeness beach, Kent, today

A group of around 16 migrants including 10 kids and an eight-month pregnant woman landed on Dungeness beach, Kent, today

Young children were picked up today at Dover, it is understood 100 migrants have made it to the Kent coast today

Young children were picked up today at Dover, it is understood 100 migrants have made it to the Kent coast today

The group of young children, women, and a man, sat on the coast at Dungeness, Kent

The group of young children, women, and a man, sat on the coast at Dungeness, Kent

The children all wore coats and one of the girls had a fluffy red onesie on.

The pregnant woman – thought to be eight months gone – was wearing a black dress and face mask as she held the hand of a child.

She looked weary and had her head in her hand at one point.

Amateur photographer Susan Pilcher, who saw them on the beach, said: ‘I could hear the Border Force workers asking how many months pregnant she was and she said eight.

‘They didn’t speak much English at all.

‘When you think that she’s doing such a risky crossing over the Channel when she’s heavily pregnant, that says how much they’ve been through.

‘It must be such a frightening thing to do. One of the kids was playing with an empty hand sanitiser bottle, filling it up with stones from the beach.

A man who was rescued by Border Force officials is escorted by authorities at the Kent coast this morning

A man who was rescued by Border Force officials is escorted by authorities at the Kent coast this morning

Border force officials rescued the migrants this morning making the dangerous Channel crossing

Border force officials rescued the migrants this morning making the dangerous Channel crossing

‘It’s heartbreaking – you can’t imagine what they’ve been through, but for them it’s just like a day out.

‘It was good to see them wrapped up warm – they don’t always have coats on and it must be really cold out at sea at night.

‘I feel so sorry for all of them.’

Border Force, police and paramedics were at the scene and the migrants had their temperatures taken.

Conditions were perfect for crossing with a calm sea and good visibility.

Minister for Immigration Compliance and the Courts Chris Philp said: ‘We are determined to make this route unviable and therefore give migrants no reason to gather on the northern coast of France.

‘France is a safe country with a well-functioning asylum system and there is no need for migrants to leave and attempt to come to the UK illegally.

‘We have offered to work with the French on safe returns at sea and we will continue work to return anyone who attempts the crossing.

‘We are continuing to go after the heinous criminals and organised crime networks putting people’s lives at risk.’

The Home Office has been contacted for comment. 

STEPHEN GLOVER: Why isn’t there outrage about Boris’s own Lavender List of Lords? 

The Roman Emperor Caligula reputedly planned to appoint his horse a Consul. As Prime Minister, Robert Salisbury made his nephew Arthur Balfour Chief Secretary of Ireland in 1887. Hence, some say, the phrase ‘Bob’s your uncle’.

I wonder whether a phrase will enter the language as a result of Boris Johnson doling out a life peerage to his younger brother Jo as one of 36 new peers. Perhaps ‘doing a Jo’ will come to mean winning a significant prize in an undeserved or fluky way.

Jo Johnson was for three years a competent middle-ranking minister until he threw in the towel last year, citing an ‘unresolvable tension’ between family loyalty and the national interest. He was a fervent Remainer who couldn’t bear Brexit.

It is rare for a former minister of relatively lowly status and comparative youth (Jo is 48) to receive a life peerage. But if your brother is a Prime Minister who couldn’t give a damn, convention can be set aside.

British Prime Minister Boris Johnson leaves 10 Downing Street for PMQs at the House of Commons on 15 July. Let’s enter the mind of Boris Johnson. He is a decent fellow with a generous soul. He wants those close to him to be happy

Let’s enter the mind of Boris Johnson, which I have studied quite a bit. He is a decent fellow with a generous soul. He wants those close to him to be happy. He felt guilty that his brother’s brief ministerial career was cut short.

And so, like a benign medieval monarch bestowing gifts on a favoured retainer, he found a peerage for his younger bro. A kind of consolation. At least Jo will wear ermine and walk tall. Who knows, he might one day be offered ministerial office again without having to submit himself to the electorate.

It’s outrageous, of course, this handing-out of a peerage to a sibling who wouldn’t otherwise have earned it. Shameless. Presumptuous. High-handed. Boris is treating the public sphere as though it were his private domain. That is where corruption begins.

Here is the amazing thing. Almost no one in public life or the media seems to care. There have been a few grumbles in the Press, and Norman Fowler, the Lord Speaker, has complained about the House of Lords getting too big. Yet charges of nepotism have been sparse.

Even the Boris-hating Guardian newspaper has for the most part kept its hands in its pockets. Some have suggested this is because Jo is a Remainer who is married to one of the paper’s female columnists, whom it doesn’t wish to upset. Maybe.

But actually it has fumed surprisingly little about Boris’s other new peers, some of whom are almost as undeserving as Jo. Have they gone to sleep at The Guardian? Or have they written off the PM, and can’t get worked up by what they may consider a trivial issue?

What about Tories who wish Boris well and don’t want him to ship water at an early stage in his prime ministership? Why aren’t they publicly urging caution and restraint and rectitude?

Jo Johnson (pictured last September) was for three years a competent middle-ranking minister until he threw in the towel last year, citing an ¿unresolvable tension¿ between family loyalty and the national interest

Jo Johnson (pictured last September) was for three years a competent middle-ranking minister until he threw in the towel last year, citing an ‘unresolvable tension’ between family loyalty and the national interest

It’s very odd. Compare the so-far muted response to Mr Johnson’s list of peers to the howls of rage and indignation that greeted the resignation honours of his Labour predecessor Harold Wilson in 1976.

This was the infamous ‘Lavender List’, so described because it was drawn up by Wilson’s adviser, and possibly his lover, Marcia Falkender, on lavender-coloured writing paper.

It undeniably contained some unworthy recipients of honours. In particular, there were two crooked businessmen: Joseph Kagan, who received a life peerage and was later convicted of fraud; and Eric Miller, who got a knighthood and killed himself the following year while under police investigation.

In Wilson’s partial defence, his dodgy list marked the end of his premiership, whereas Boris Johnson’s controversial nominations have come near the beginning of his. And at least Wilson didn’t ennoble a member of his own family.

Look at some of Boris’s other peers. There is Evgeny Lebedev, son of a former Russian KGB spy turned multi-millionaire oligarch. With his father’s money, he has tried with limited success to turn around two struggling British newspapers. Both Lebedevs deserve some recognition for that.

But a peerage? Conferring such an honour on the son of an ex-KGB officer is risky, to say the least. Moreover, the young Lebedev and the Prime Minister are close. Friends of Evgeny tell me Boris has visited the Russian’s villa in Italy (he has a separate castle nearby) at least six times. It doesn’t smell right.

Other fortunate beneficiaries include Henry Bellingham, a long-serving backwoods MP and Old Etonian. Ed Vaizey, like Jo Johnson a former middle-ranking minister, also surprisingly becomes a peer. Interestingly, his late father figured controversially on the Lavender List.

Admittedly, many of Boris’s nominations for peerages are unexceptionable. No one could reasonably cavil at the inclusion of former Chancellors Ken Clarke and Philip Hammond. Margaret Thatcher’s biographer and former newspaper editor Charles Moore will be an adornment to the Lords, though I wish he hadn’t recently described Boris as a ‘genius’.

Boris assumes he can get away with it ¿ just as he unapologetically gave a peerage to his mate Zac Goldsmith (pictured in February) after the latter lost his seat in last December¿s election. Goldsmith carried on as Environment Minister as though nothing had happened

Boris assumes he can get away with it — just as he unapologetically gave a peerage to his mate Zac Goldsmith (pictured in February) after the latter lost his seat in last December’s election. Goldsmith carried on as Environment Minister as though nothing had happened

Erstwhile Labour Brexiteers Frank Field, Gisela Stuart and Kate Hoey are deserving additions to the red benches, though I’m not so sure about former Brexit Party MEP and stalwart of BBC Radio 4’s Moral Maze, Claire Fox. It is odd to see her elevated while her old boss Nigel Farage, whom Boris dislikes, is overlooked.

One interesting footnote. Though I yield to no one in my admiration for former newspaper editor Veronica Wadley, I note that her husband Tom Bower is preparing a biography of the PM. I hope Boris doesn’t intend to blunt his normally harsh nib. Andrew Gimson, a previous biographer, says Boris offered him £100,000 to junk his book.

All in all, this was a partial list, with some undistinguished names and several unsuitable nominations. Boris assumes he can get away with it — just as he unapologetically gave a peerage to his mate Zac Goldsmith after the latter lost his seat in last December’s election. Goldsmith carried on as Environment Minister as though nothing had happened.

This habit of defying convention, and not caring what people think, has become a feature of Mr Johnson’s time in office. We saw it in his relaxed response to the infringements of the lock- down by his friend and adviser Dominic Cummings. Robert Jenrick’s scandalous misdemeanours over planning law also weren’t taken seriously by No 10.

It’s as though the Prime Minister’s loyalty to those close or useful to him trumps wider considerations of proper, decent behaviour. How else can one explain his appointing his younger brother a peer?

So far there have been no very harmful consequences among his supporters. But I don’t think the ‘Red Wall’ Tories, who are about to be consumed in an economic tsunami, will take kindly to evidence of nepotism, or the revelation that Boris’s friends live by other rules.

Boris has always been pretty shameless, but he did once understand that most people don’t relish abuses of power. I remember his describing to me around 2004 how Cherie Blair arrived outside a restaurant in London’s West End in a motorcade as though she were Eva Peron or Imelda Marcos. He didn’t like that.

For now, people may not care very much about his list of peers. But there is a growing sense that there is one set of rules for Boris and his pals, and another for the rest of us. Unless this is checked, it could one day be fatal.